Theodore Sumrall

Articles by Dr. Theodore Sheldon Sumrall, Ph.D.

Theodore Sumrall’s Review of his Dissertation on Insensitive Highly Energetic Materials

Theodore Sumrall writes about ingredient selection and theory of the “Dissertation on the Study of Insensitive Highly Energetic Materials”. This is the dissertation on research, development, and testing of energetic materials which were designed to be much less sensitive to unintentional initiation either due to shock or thermal responses.

The Dissertation on the Study of Insensitive Highly Energetic Materials can be summarized into the following 10 catagories:
  • High Performance
  • Low Sensitivity
  • Waterproof
  • Steam Kettle Processability (Viscosity < 2kp)
  • Less Than 24 Hour Cure
  • Boosterable with Standard Boosters
  • Low Critical Diameter
  • Non-TNT Based
  • Ten to Twenty year Shelf Life
  • Low Raw Material Cost and High Raw Material Availability
This research is part of the Doctoral requirements for Theodore S. Sumrall at The University of Tokyo, March of 1998. Theodore S. Sumrall was awarded a Doctorate Degree from the Department of Chemical Systems Engineering in April of 1998 as a result of his research, development testing and dissertation presentation.
Theodore Sumrall is the senior vice president of engineering at GeoGenCo, LLC. He manages all the engineering related aspects of Geothermal and Waste Heat Recovery power generation projects within the US and internationally.
Theodore has more than 30 years of experience in domestic as well as international industries in the fields of: chemical, geothermal, oil and gas (Upstream, onshore and offshore, and midstream and downstream), petroleum, renewable energy, precious metals mining, and defense.
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April 25, 2018 Posted by | Alternative Energy | Leave a comment

Theodore Sumrall Is the Senior Vice President of Geogenco, LLC

Theodore Sumrall is the Senior Vice President of Engineering at GeoGenCo, LLC. He is responsible for all Engineering related aspects of Geothermal and Waste Heat Recovery power generation projects within the US and Internationally. Theodore has more than 30 years of experience in domestic and international Chemical, geothermal, oil and gas (Upstream, onshore and offshore, and midstream and downstream), petroleum, renewable energy, precious metals mining, and defense industries.

For his work in the chemical industry he has won a lot of awards and recognitions –

  1. NEBOSH International General Certificate in Occupational Health and Safety
  2. Fluids for Fracturing Petroleum Reservoirs.
  3. SAP Training and Education.
  4. Dimensions of Professional Selling.
  5. OSHA GHS Hazard Communication Standard Training.
  6. Rocket Systems Analysis and Design Certification.
  7. Drilling Fluids Engineer.
  8. Transportation Worker Identification Credential.
  9. Secret and Top Secret Clearance.

He also issued a paper on geothermal energy mentioning that this renewable source of energy is extremely environmental friendly and can be used in many geothermal hot spots around the globe. To harness the energy, deep holes are drilled until a significant geothermal hot spot is fund.

Theodore Sumrall also specializes in Chemical Formulation Optimization, Process Engineering, Petroleum Engineering, Drilling Operations, Drilling Fluids, Renewable Energy, Product Development, Design & Specifications, Intellectual Property, R&D Leadership, Product Innovation, Production & Testing, Project – Program Management, Quality, Process Development, International Liaison, Safety Team Leadership, Energetic Materials, Hazardous Materials, and Mining and Metals Recovery.

Theodore Sumrall

April 25, 2018 Posted by | Alternative Energy | Leave a comment

Theodore Sumrall Is Currently Serving As the Senior Vice-President at GeoGenCo, LLC

Theodore Sumrall is the Senior Vice President of Engineering at GeoGenCo, LLC. He is responsible for all Engineering related aspects of Geothermal and Waste Heat Recovery power generation projects within the US and Internationally. Theodore has more than 30 years of experience in domestic and international Chemical, geothermal, oil and gas (Upstream, onshore and offshore, and midstream and downstream), petroleum, renewable energy, precious metals mining, and defense industries.
For his work in the chemical industry he has received a significant number t of certifications, awards and recognitions –
  • NEBOSH International General Certificate in Occupational Health and Safety
  • Fluids for Fracturing Petroleum Reservoirs
  • SAP Training and Education
  • Dimensions of Professional Selling
  • OSHA GHS Hazard Communication Standard Training
  • Rocket Systems Analysis and Design Certification
  • Drilling Fluids Engineer
  • Transportation Worker Identification Credential
  • Secret and Top Secret Clearance
He also authored a number of papers on geothermal energy highlighting that this renewable source of energy is extremely environmental friendly and can be used in many geothermal hot spots around the globe. To harness the energy, deep wells  are drilled until a significant geothermal resource  is located.
 
Theodore Sumrall also specializes in Chemical Formulation Optimization, Process Engineering, Petroleum Engineering, Drilling Operations, Drilling Fluids, Renewable Energy, Product Development, Design & Specifications, Intellectual Property, R&D Leadership, Product Innovation, Production & Testing, Project – Program Management, Quality, Process Development, International Liaison, Safety Team Leadership, Energetic Materials, Hazardous Materials, and Mining and Metals Recovery.
Theodore Sumrall  Theodore S. Sumrall

April 25, 2018 Posted by | Alternative Energy | Leave a comment

Insecticides Help Increase Agricultural Productivity – Theodore Sheldon Sumrall

Agriculture has been the way of sustenance for thousands of years. Since the dawn of civilization the human race has been engaged in cultivation of crops and fruits. Though previously it was executed only to meet personal ends, today it has become an industry on which most of the people in the world thrive. It is to be kept in mind that agriculture is still the only source of food in the world. With the increase in population the demand of foods has also drastically skyrocketed. Previously every year millions of tons of crops are damaged by pests and insects. Therefore after thorough research pesticides were developed that gave a boost to the overall production of crops and grains by acting heavy on pests and insects.

There are different types of insecticides for different types of pests. The Food and Agriculture Organization or FAO has categorized different types of pesticides. It will be an error to think that these chemicals are applied only against pests and insects, instead, they can be applied to prevent the aggression of any sort of invader that poses a threat to the crops including birds and snails. Some pesticides can also be used against plants that hinder the production of crops. Pesticides are, therefore, indispensable in the agriculture industry and have no substitute if productivity is to be increased.

But, there are some controversy regarding the use of pesticides nowadays. It is said that pesticides are causing serious health problems. In recent years some issues have come in to limelight where direct relation between pesticides and serious health hazards has been established. The preparation of a pesticide also requires utmost caution as a single moment of carelessness can usher in a huge trouble. Probably the most widely used pesticide is the DDT which is effective in preventing diseases like malaria also. DDT has been in use for six decades now and it still continues to be the one of the most favorite pesticides in the world. Though there is a global discontent against pesticides, these are best ways to protect the crops from the onslaught of insects and other types of threats.

December 3, 2012 Posted by | Chemicals, Theodore Sumrall | , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Modern Age Bakery Ovens Are Indispensable in Food Industry – Theodore Sheldon Sumrall

The bakery industry is one of the oldest industries in the world. With the evolution of time and technology a lot has changed in every industrial sector. Since industrial revolution the world has been dominated by machines. It is needless to say that modern machines have made our lives a lot more comfortable and easier. But as there is a constant rise in the demand of products and services, the need for more sophisticated machineries and equipments are being felt. Therefore, there is a steady development of more and more new machineries that can serve the demands of different industrial sectors. Modern bakery ovens are the latest additions to this.

Modern age bakery ovens have been developed with the sole purpose of providing impeccable service at minimal cost. These machines have reduced human labor to a large extent and have increased productivity at the same time. Most of these machines are operated by electricity and hence there is no need to acquire extra fuel at extra cost. These bakery ovens are the perfect blend of high and fast productivity and cost efficiency. Most of the bakeries in the world employ these ovens in order to efficiently serve the demands of their customers. As the bakery industry is on a steady expansion, the demand of these ovens is also increasing.

There are many companies involved in the manufacturing of bakery ovens. Most of them have their own websites. Clients can easily visit these websites in order to get an idea of what type of services and ovens these companies provide. As there are different types of ovens available in the market, clients should make the choice very carefully. Each type of oven offers different baking process, so, bakery managers should know all the functions properly in order to get the appropriate result. However, clients should also be aware of fake materials that are sold by a number of unauthorized and illegitimate stores across the globe. It is needless to say that these fake materials not only fail to deliver the desired performance but also cause huge monetary loss.

December 3, 2012 Posted by | Equipment | , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Dissertation on Insensitive Highly Energetic Materials (Section 2.4)

2.4                               Ingredient Selection and Theory

The overall logic for selection of raw materials is detailed in Figure 2.4-1.  Once ingredients were selected, scale up to 450 gram mixes occurred.  Ingredients were selected to help ensure that project objectives (Table 1-3) were achieved.

Binder Screening and Selection

Theoretical calculations for non AP containing PBX compositions which utilize an HTPB binder system revealed that significant amounts of un-reacted carbon was being generated in both the burn and detonation reactions.  The code predicted that, while the majority of the aluminum was oxidized to Al2O3, the majority of the binder (a hydrocarbon) was un-oxidized.

______________________________________________________________________

 

Figure 2.3-1              Theoretical Calculation Logic Flow

 

It was postulated, and supported by thermochemical code output, that replacement of the non-oxygenated HTPB hydrocarbon binder with an oxygenated binder might allow the oxygen to enter into the detonation and/or deflagration reaction.  This approach, if successful, would yield a dual benefit.  First, oxygen from the binder could be utilized to burn the residual hydrocarbon and secondly, the more oxygenated (and more sensitive) ingredients (such as RDX) could be reduced in content.  This would hopefully allow the PBX to pass tests which PBX-109 fails, namely Slow Cook-Off (SCO), Fragment Impact (FI) and Sympathetic Detonation (SD).  In the process of oxygenated binder evaluation, binders were considered that not only had relatively high oxygen content, but which would also adequately wet the solids (to ensure low viscosity (Objective #4)) and which had a demonstrated capability of rapid cure (Objective #5).  Both of these characteristics would be desirable from production cost standpoints.

Finally, only binder ingredients which were commercially available in large quantities and at a relatively low cost were chosen (Objective #8).

After a thorough evaluation of a number of potential binder candidates, three oxygenated, curable binders were selected for further evaluation, polyethyleneglycol (PEG), polypropyleneglycol (PPG), and ethyleneoxide-propyleneoxide (EOPO).  The plasticizer chosen was triacetin (TA).  In order to meet rapid cure goals, two types of cure catalysts were chosen for evaluation.  The first cure catalyst evaluated was ferric-acetylacetonate (FeAA).  The second cure catalyst evaluated was di-butyltin di-laurate (DBTDL) in conjunction with a cure delay/cure stimulation catalytic system consisting of  minute concentrations of  triphenyl bismuth (TPB) and maleic anhydride (MA) .

A comparison of the theoretical improvement which was predicted to occur by switching from an HTPB binder  to a PPG binder for a well characterized explosive (PBX-109) is detailed in Table 2.4-1.

Table 2.4-1

Comparison of Theoretical Performance Improvement with Oxygenated Binders

Characteristic HTPB Binder PPG Binder
Density (g/cm3) 1.655 1.7071
Detonation Velocity (m/sec) 6721 7010
Detonation Pressure (MPa) 18435 21666
Percent Un-reacted Carbon 19.5 15.04
Temperature (K) 3682 4052

As shown later, PPG was down selected as the final polymer of choice due to superior processing, curing, and physical property characteristics.

Oxidizer Screening and Selection

Theoretical calculations showed a direct correlation between energetic material density and oxygen content with detonation velocity, detonation pressure and Impulse Density.  It was predicted by the TIGER and NASA/Lewis codes that the inclusion of oxidizers such as Ammonium Nitrate (AN), Ammonium Perchlorate (AP), Potassium Nitrate (KN), etc., would improve detonation velocity, detonation pressure and blast pressure impulse.

The addition of oxidizers such as: Ammonium Nitrate (AN); Ammonium Perchlorate (AP); Potassium Nitrate (KN); and etc., have been proven beneficial to the more efficient combustion of fuels.  A higher degree of fuel combustion will result in higher temperatures and therefore higher blast pressures.  AP has long been the oxidizer of choice for solid rocket propulsion such as the Space Shuttle SRB and NASDA H-II Boosters.  However, at the time that this project was initiated, AP availability had decreased (and cost had increased) due to an incident at one of only two major AP producers in the US.  Also testing by other researchers revealed a correlation between AP content and Slow Cook-Off (SCO) test failure.

Criteria other than cost and availability which guided oxidizer selection were:  high oxygen balance; non-hygroscopic character, and high-moderate density.  Potassium Nitrate (KN), for example, met all of the screening criteria.  At a crystal density of 2.1 g/cm3, and despite having 67% condensed products, KN reacts to form one half more mole of free O2 than AP as indicated by the following equations.

2KNO3 à K2O + N2 + 2 1/2 O2 Equation 2.4-1

2NH4ClO4 à N2 + 3H2O + 2HCl +2½ O2 Equation 2.4-2

Lead Nitrate (PbN) and Barium Nitrate (BaN) also have high densities (4.53 g/cm3 and 3.24 g/cm3 respectively) are non hygroscopic, and react to form three moles and 2.5 moles of excess O2 respectively according to Equations 2.4-3 and 2.4-4.

Pb(NO3)2 à 2Pb + N2 + 3O2 Equation 2.4-3

Ba(NO3)2à BaO + N2 + 2 1/2 O2 Equation  2.4-4

KN and PbN were selected as the oxidizers of choice during this phase of research.  KN was eventually chosen over PbN due to superior sensitivity and environmental characteristics.

Molecular Explosive Screening and Selection

To achieve performance goals, it was determined that at least some molecular explosives would be required.  Molecular explosives are defined as explosives which have the fuel and oxidizer segments linked via chemical bond.  Common examples of molecular explosives are TNT, RDX, and HMX.  The chemical structure of these three molecular explosives is found in Annex-A.  Molecular explosives are therefore unlike other types of explosives, such as emulsion explosives or composite explosives where, although the fuel and oxidizer are in relatively close proximity to each other, they are not linked via chemical bond.  Molecular explosive type was screened for incorporation into the insensitive energetic design matrix as outlined in Figure 2.3-1.

As a result of this analysis, from theoretical insensitivity, performance, and cost standpoints, it was determined that the only well characterized, economically attractive, insensitive, high performance explosive which was readily available at the time was nitroguanidine (NQ).  Other low sensitivity, high performance explosives existed, but their cost and availability were not comparable to NQ.  Tri-Amino Tri-Nitro Benzene (TATB), for example, while highly insensitive has a cost of » ¥7700/kg.

NQ Availability and Selection Rational

Four crystalline configurations of NQ were available at the time this research was being conducted from domestic and international producers.  Figure 2.4-2 details the production differences of these four crystalline types.  Low Bulk Density Nitroguanidine (LBDNQ), has a very high length to diameter (L/D) ratio.  The typical diameter is approximately 5mm however, the length can exceed 100mm (Figure 2.4-3).  The LBDNQ is very fibrous with a consistency of cotton and occasionally, the needles are hollow.  The bulk density of the LBDNQ is » 0.17g/cm3.  The LBDNQ, although inexpensive, is processable only in small quantities (<6%).  Additionally, due to the potential of entrained air in the hollow needles, the potential for “hot spot” formation exists which could make the energetic material quite sensitive.

By dissolving LBDNQ in a solution of water and methyl cellulose, followed by re-crystallization, a much larger (»150mm – 300mm) and more processable crystalline form of NQ is produced.  This material is referred to as “Cubical Nitroguanidine” (CNQ) or “Un-pulverized Nitroguanidine” with a bulk density of » 0.9g/c m3.  (Figure 2.4-4)

CNQ is subsequently pulverized to a particle size of » 40mm  -120mm and after this process is termed “High Bulk Density Nitroguanidine” (HBDNQ) or “Pulverized Nitroguanidine” (PNQ).  This process increases the bulk density of the NQ to a bulk density of »0.4g/cm3 for HBDNQ.  Depending on the manufacturer, the particle sizes of HBDNQ vary.

Figure 2.4-5 shows PNQ which was ground in plant and Figure 2.4-6 show PNQ which was ground at a facility in Md.

The fourth crystalline form of NQ is termed “Spherical Nitroguanidine” (SNQ) (Figure 2.4-7).  This material is manufactured in a manner similar to CNQ, however, the re-crystallization solvent is an organic solvent rather than water.

January 18, 2011 Posted by | Dissertation | , , | Leave a comment

Renewable Energy and Electric Vehicles-by-Theodore S. Sumrall

Why do we not have electric vehicles yet? A 2006 documentary film explores the creation, limited commercialization, and subsequent destruction of the electric vehicle in the United States (specifically the General Motors EV1 of the mid 1990s). The film explores the roles of automobile manufacturers, the oil industry, the US government, the Californian government, batteries, hydrogen vehicles, and consumers in limiting the development and adoption of this technology. Why this recalcitrance on the part of our political leaders? One word describes it all, “GREED”.

Wikipedia describes the film as dealing with the history of the electric car, its development, and commercialization. The film focuses primarily on the General Motors EV1, which was made available for lease mainly in Southern California, after the California Air Resources Board passed the ZEV mandate in 1990. Also discussed are the implications of the events depicted for air pollution, environmentalism, Middle East politics, and global warming.

The film details the California Air Resources Board’s reversal of the mandate after suits from automobile manufacturers, the oil industry, and the George W. Bush administration. It points out that Bush’s chief influencers, Dick Cheney, Condoleezza Rice, and Andrew Card, are all former executives and board members of oil and auto companies. The EV1 was eliminated from the GM Line in 1999 but now they are back with the “”Volt”” portraying themselves now as the saviors of the country.

A large part of the film details GM’s efforts to demonstrate to California that there was no demand for their product, and then to terminate the leases on every EV1 and dispose of them. A few were disabled and given to museums and universities, but almost all were found to have been crushed; GM never responded to the EV drivers’ offer to pay the residual lease value ($1.9 million was offered for the remaining 78 cars in Burbank before they were crushed). Several activists, including actress Alexandra Paul, are shown being arrested in the protest that attempted to block the GM car carriers taking the remaining EV1s off to be crushed.

The film explores some of the reasons that the auto and oil industries worked to kill off the electric car. Wally Rippel is shown explaining that the oil companies were afraid of losing out on trillions of dollars in potential profit from their transportation fuel monopoly over the coming decades, while the auto companies were afraid of losses over the next six months of EV production. Others explained the killing differently. GM spokesman Dave Barthmuss argued it was lack of consumer interest due to the maximum range of 80–100 miles per charge, and the relatively high price.

The film also showed the failed attempts by electric car enthusiasts trying to combat the cancellation of EV1 and the surviving vehicles. Towards the end of the film, a deactivated EV1 car #99 was found in the garage of Petersen Automotive Museum, with former EV sales representative, Chelsea Sexton, invited for a visit.

This was a complicity involving “”leaders”” in the highest levels of corporate and political America and again motivated by pure “”GREED”” and plays directly into the hands of our nation’s enemies who wish to see us crippled economically. Theodore Sumrall, Ph.D.”

January 18, 2011 Posted by | Alternative Energy, Vehicles | , , , , | Leave a comment